Online Appendix for "What We Know (and Could Know) about International Environmental Agreements"

Below we provide supplementary materials for the following article:

Ronald B. Mitchell, Liliana B. Andonova, Mark Axelrod, Jörg Balsiger, Thomas Bernauer, Jessica F. Green, James Hollway, Rakhyun E. Kim and Jean-Frédéric Morin. 2020. What We Know (and Could Know) About International Environmental AgreementsGlobal Environmental Politics 20:1 (February), 103-121.  https://doi.org/10.1162/glep_a_00544.

Dataset replication materials and copies of original figures

Replication materials are available HERE. These include three Stata datasets, a Stata command (.do) file, and four scheme files that control graphic parameters. They are contained in a .zip file. Interested scholars can download the zip file, extract all files and folders, read the readme.txt file, and then run the ieadb-graph.do file to generate the figures used in the article.

Original copies of the figures in the article are here:

Initial sources for identifying IEAs to initially establish the IEADB

The sources used to initially identify IEAs and establish the IEADB are listed here: https://www.iea.ulaval.ca/about/sources-agreements-database

Criteria for inclusion of IEAs in the IEADB

For a more detailed discussion of how the IEADB decides to include legal instruments proposed for inclusion, see the discussion at: https://www.iea.ulaval.ca/about/international-environmental-agreements-ieas-defined

Treatment of European Union environmental agreements

The IEADB excludes European Union (EU) environmental directives that, although legally binding, are treated as “legislative acts” that more closely resemble national laws within a federal system and, in any event, are well-documented by the EU.

Collecting reliable data and promoting data reliability

The IEADB makes every effort to ensure all information on the site is accurate, complete, and up to date, although it cannot make guarantees regarding the accuracy of the information. In searching for and assessing potential inclusion of international agreements, their texts, membership information, performance indicator data, and the like, the IEADB seek to gather data from official government and intergovernmental sources or institutional sources generally considered to be reliable. For some older IEAs and IEAs among lower-income states, primary sources may be unavailable. In such cases, we rely on secondary sources that brought these IEAs to the project’s attention and include data only from secondary sources that the IEADB Director assesses as sufficiently reliable. Since approximately 2007, additions of any IEAs or related data to the IEADB include documentation of the original source of the data (original sources were not systematically captured for initial entries in the dataset). All existing IEADB data has been collected directly by the IEADB Director or, where collected by others, has been authenticated against original sources by the IEADB Director. To facilitate ongoing improvement in data quality, users of the dataset are encouraged to provide feedback to the IEADB Director if errors are found.

Assigning IEAs to subject categories

Each agreement, when added to the IEADB, is “tagged” with those words found in its title or preamble that were used to identify the agreement as meeting the IEADB’s definition of environmental (see definition at https://www.iea.ulaval.ca/about/international-environmental-agreements-ieas-defined).” For a very few treaties that clearly had a primary focus on environmental issues but whose title or preamble did not include obviously “environmental” words, we have found environmental words either in their first few articles or in assessments made by Giordano in creating a comprehensive list of wildlife treaties (Giordano 2002).
To assign IEAs to subject categories for this article, we simplified and systematized the IEADB’s existing subject categorization. A subset of the IEADB Board of Contributors reviewed tags and subjects assigned to all MEAs in the dataset, which had developed organically as an artifact of assigning tags and subjects to individual MEAs over several years. We reviewed MEA with the goal of systematizing, consolidating, and reducing redundancy and variation among the set of tags and corresponding subject categories. In preparing the current article, we mapped a revised set of 235 potential tags to a set of 8 subject codes. Stata code searched the title of each IEA for all potential tags, coding each for all tags found and, for IEAs with multiple subject codes, assigning the highest-ranked subject code from the following list as the single, dominant, subject code.
1. Climate
2. Species
3. Pollution
4. Energy
5. Habitat
6. Freshwater
7. Human Sphere
8. Other
Thus, a multi-subject IEA addressing river pollution would be treated as Pollution (rather than Freshwater) and one protecting waterfowl in wetlands would be treated as Species (rather than Habitat).

List of codes used for subject assignment

Codes used for subject assignment, with Stata used to apply subject in the following order

For each IEA title (agreement name), Stata code searches for each of the following keywords in the order below, assigning the keyword to a subj_terms variable and the corresponding Subject category to a subj_codes variable. Additional keywords found in the same IEA title are also added to the subj_terms variable, and the corresponding Subject category to the subj_codes variable unless that IEA has already been assigned that Subject category. This leads to many IEA’s subj_terms and subj_codes variables having multiple Keywords and Subject categories.

  • Many Keywords are truncated, capturing titles that contain any variant of the term
  • The “&” symbol in a Keyword is used to search for multi-word phrases in titles
  • Title searches were done in the order below, with iterative verification to ensure that both Keyword terms and the sequencing of their assignment led to appropriate assignment of values to the subj_term, subj_codes, and subj_code variables

 

Keyword

Subject category

fauna

Species

accident

Pollution

Fish

Species

animal

Species

marine resources

Species

seal

Species

senegal river

Freshwater

pollut

Freshwater

rhine

Freshwater

nuclear material

Energy

 oder

Freshwater

lake

Freshwater

river

Freshwater

weapon

Human_sphere

hazardous

Pollution

energy

Energy

climate change

Climate

kyoto mechanism

Climate

risk capacity

Climate

power plant

Energy

transportation of nuclear material

Energy

joint works

Energy

common works

Energy

power and irrigation

Energy

hydraulic

Energy

senegal river&development

Energy

environment program

Other

environmental framework

Other

nordic environment

Other

nuclear environmental program

Other

permanent commission of the south pacific

Other

spitsbergen

Other

cooperation in the area of environment

Other

cooperation in the field of environment

Other

environmental cooperation

Other

environment protection

Other

environmental protection

Other

protection of the environment

Other

seabed

Other

coastal zone management

Other

continental shelf

Other

gulf of aden environment

Other

high seas

Other

indian ocean marine affairs

Other

law of the sea

Other

maritime zone

Other

natural heritage

Other

natural resources

Other

nature conservation

Other

conservation of nature

Other

aral sea

Freshwater

danube

Freshwater

elbe

Freshwater

indus basin

Freshwater

limpopo

Freshwater

maas

Freshwater

mekong

Freshwater

mosel

Freshwater

navigation of the rhine

Freshwater

non-navigational uses of international watercourses

Freshwater

plata

Freshwater

scheldt

Freshwater

transboundary water

Freshwater

volta

Freshwater

waterway

Freshwater

zambezi watercourse

Freshwater

diama

Freshwater

niger

Freshwater

manantali

Freshwater

syr darya

Freshwater

tornea

Freshwater

water coordination

Freshwater

water resources

Freshwater

desertification

Habitat

drought control

Habitat

dry and barren land

Habitat

wetland

Habitat

landscape

Habitat

biosphere reserve

Habitat

park

Habitat

trifinio

Habitat

protected area

Habitat

alp

Habitat

amazon

Habitat

antarctic

Habitat

cultural heritage

Human_sphere

access to information

Human_sphere

environmental impact assessment

Human_sphere

industrial accident

Human_sphere

industrial policy

Human_sphere

industrial safety

Human_sphere

fishing vessel personnel

Human_sphere

occupational health

Human_sphere

safety and health

Human_sphere

training

Human_sphere

environmental monitoring

Human_sphere

exploration of the sea

Human_sphere

meteorolog

Human_sphere

monitoring of the stratosphere

Human_sphere

marine science

Human_sphere

hydrographic org

Human_sphere

oceanographic commission

Human_sphere

environment and development

Human_sphere

sustainable

Human_sphere

association of caribbean states

Human_sphere

common market

Human_sphere

east african community

Human_sphere

free trade

Human_sphere

southern african development community

Human_sphere

world trade organization

Human_sphere

tourism

Human_sphere

transfrontier cooperation

Human_sphere

nuclear free

Human_sphere

nuclear test

Human_sphere

environmental modification

Human_sphere

institute

Human_sphere

weapon&chemical

Human_sphere

warfare&bacteriological

Human_sphere

weapon&bacteriological

Human_sphere

pollutant release

Pollution

transport of corrosive

Pollution

activities dangerous to the environment

Pollution

against pollution

Pollution

control of pollution

Pollution

emergen

Pollution

man-made disasters

Pollution

technological disaster

Pollution

compensation

Pollution

liability

Pollution

chernobyl

Pollution

radiation accident

Pollution

radioactive contamination

Pollution

haze pollution

Pollution

ozone

Pollution

white lead in paint

Pollution

bay of bengal program

Pollution

benguela current

Pollution

protection of the marine environment

Pollution

protection and development of the marine environment

Pollution

pollution from land-based sources

Pollution

detergent

Pollution

polluted waters

Pollution

wastewater treatment

Pollution

dumping

Pollution

oil spills

Pollution

pollution from ships

Pollution

carriage of dangerous goods by inland water

Pollution

anti-fouling

Pollution

ballast

Pollution

nuclear safety

Pollution

reactor safety

Pollution

radioactive waste

Pollution

recycling of ships

Pollution

salvage

Pollution

ships carrying dangerous chemicals

Pollution

wrecks

Pollution

mercury

Pollution

persistent organic

Pollution

pollution&air

Pollution

pollution&marine

Pollution

pollution&mediterranean

Pollution

pollution&black

Pollution

pollution&baltic

Pollution

north-east atlantic&pollution

Pollution

pollution&north atlantic

Pollution

pollution&oil

Pollution

coastal environment&protection

Pollution

coastal areas&conservation

Pollution

mediterranean shore&protection

Pollution

rhine&corrosive

Pollution

rhine&discharge of waste

Pollution

rhine&inflammable

Pollution

rhine&petroleum

Pollution

rhine&protection

Pollution

pollution&river

Pollution

pollution&emergen

Pollution

aquacultur

Species

deposit of microorganisms

Species

foot and mouth

Species

locust

Species

veterin

Species

agricult

Species

agropecuaria

Species

crop

Species

phylloxera

Species

new varieties of plants

Species

protection of plants

Species

phytosanitary

Species

plant protection

Species

plants quarantine

Species

plant quarantine

Species

quarantine of plants

Species

genetic resources of cultured plants

Species

tobacco

Species

fertilizer

Species

biodiversity

Species

biological diversity

Species

albatross

Species

bird

Species

bats

Species

hunting

Species

ivory marketing

Species

polar bears

Species

trapping

Species

vicuna

Species

gorillas

Species

anadromous

Species

capelin

Species

herring

Species

plaice

Species

pollock

Species

prawns

Species

tuna

Species

liquor traffic

Species

transitional rights

Species

aquatic biological resources

Species

living aquatic resources

Species

living resources

Species

living marine resources

Species

maritime resources

Species

salmon

Species

cetacean

Species

dolphin

Species

fur seal

Species

marine mammal

Species

turtle

Species

whale

Species

whaling

Species

wild animal

Species

wildlife

Species

extinguishing of natural fires

Species

forest

Species

timber

Species

fauna&flora

Species

Catalog of unique subj_terms assigned to IEAs

Catalog of unique subj_terms assigned by Stata code

As noted above, our Stata code leads to many IEAs having subj_terms and subj_codes variables that contain multiple Keywords and multiple Subject categories. To simplify the presentation in the present article, the IEADB used Stata code to assess each IEA’s set of subj_codes (with potentially multiple subjects) and assign that IEA a subj_code (single subject) corresponding to the highest-ranked subject in our hierarchy of eight subject codes (see above). That Stata code assigned 458 unique subj_term combinations to 52 unique subj_codes, which were then assigned one of our eight subject codes. Those assignments are documented below.

subj_terms (words found in title of IEA)

subj_codes (allows for multiple subjects)

subj_code (single subject)

access to information

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

accident

Pollution

Pollution

accident, emergen

Pollution

Pollution

accident, emergen, radiation accident

Pollution

Pollution

accident, energy

Pollution, Energy

Pollution

accident, industrial accident

Pollution, Human_sphere

Pollution

accident, lake, transboundary water, industrial accident, compensation, liability

Pollution, Freshwater, Human_sphere

Pollution

accident, nuclear safety

Pollution

Pollution

accident, nuclear test, chernobyl, radiation accident

Pollution, Human_sphere

Pollution

accident, pollut

Pollution, Freshwater

Pollution

activities dangerous to the environment, liability

Pollution

Pollution

agricult

Species

Species

agricult, bird

Species

Species

agricult, forest

Species

Species

agricult, plant quarantine

Species

Species

agropecuaria

Species

Species

albatross

Species

Species

alp

Habitat

Habitat

alp, agricult

Habitat, Species

Species

alp, forest

Habitat, Species

Species

alp, sustainable

Habitat, Human_sphere

Habitat

alp, tourism

Habitat, Human_sphere

Habitat

amazon

Habitat

Habitat

anadromous

Species

Species

animal

Species

Species

animal, niger

Species, Freshwater

Species

animal, plant quarantine

Species

Species

animal, veterin

Species

Species

animal, wild animal

Species

Species

antarctic

Habitat

Habitat

antarctic, living resources

Habitat, Species

Species

antarctic, whaling

Habitat, Species

Species

anti-fouling

Pollution

Pollution

aquacultur

Species

Species

aquatic biological resources

Species

Species

aral sea

Freshwater

Freshwater

association of caribbean states

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

ballast

Pollution

Pollution

bats

Species

Species

bay of bengal program

Pollution

Pollution

benguela current

Pollution

Pollution

biodiversity

Species

Species

biological diversity

Species

Species

biosphere reserve

Habitat

Habitat

bird

Species

Species

bird, hunting

Species

Species

capelin

Species

Species

carriage of dangerous goods by inland water

Pollution

Pollution

cetacean

Species

Species

chernobyl

Pollution

Pollution

climate change

Climate

Climate

climate change, environmental protection, nature conservation, nuclear safety

Climate, Other, Pollution

Climate

coastal areas&conservation

Pollution

Pollution

coastal environment&protection

Pollution

Pollution

coastal zone management

Other

Other

common market

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

common works

Energy

Energy

compensation

Pollution

Pollution

conservation of nature

Other

Other

continental shelf

Other

Other

cooperation in the area of environment

Other

Other

cooperation in the area of environment, environmental monitoring

Other, Human_sphere

Human_sphere

cooperation in the area of environment, environmental protection

Other

Other

cooperation in the area of environment, environmental protection, natural resources, sustainable

Other, Human_sphere

Human_sphere

cooperation in the field of environment

Other

Other

cooperation in the field of environment, environmental monitoring

Other, Human_sphere

Human_sphere

cooperation in the field of environment, environmental protection

Other

Other

cooperation in the field of environment, environmental protection, natural resources

Other

Other

crop

Species

Species

cultural heritage

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

danube

Freshwater

Freshwater

danube, protected area

Freshwater, Habitat

Habitat

danube, water resources

Freshwater

Freshwater

deposit of microorganisms

Species

Species

desertification

Habitat

Habitat

detergent

Pollution

Pollution

diama

Freshwater

Freshwater

dolphin

Species

Species

drought control

Habitat

Habitat

dry and barren land

Habitat

Habitat

east african community

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

elbe

Freshwater

Freshwater

emergen

Pollution

Pollution

emergen, man-made disasters

Pollution

Pollution

emergen, nuclear safety

Pollution

Pollution

emergen, technological disaster

Pollution

Pollution

energy

Energy

Energy

energy, alp

Energy, Habitat

Energy

energy, biodiversity, forest

Energy, Species

Species

energy, climate change

Energy, Climate

Climate

energy, climate change, biodiversity, forest

Energy, Climate, Species

Climate

energy, kyoto mechanism

Energy, Climate

Climate

energy, liability

Energy, Pollution

Pollution

energy, manantali

Energy, Freshwater

Energy

energy, nature conservation

Energy, Other

Energy

energy, niger

Energy, Freshwater

Energy

energy, power plant

Energy

Energy

energy, reactor safety

Energy, Pollution

Pollution

energy, southern african development community

Energy, Human_sphere

Energy

energy, sustainable

Energy, Human_sphere

Energy

energy, syr darya

Energy, Freshwater

Energy

energy, volta

Energy, Freshwater

Energy

energy, water resources

Energy, Freshwater

Energy

environment and development

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

environment program

Other

Other

environment protection

Other

Other

environmental cooperation

Other

Other

environmental framework

Other

Other

environmental framework, emergen

Other, Pollution

Pollution

environmental impact assessment

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

environmental modification

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

environmental monitoring

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

environmental protection

Other

Other

environmental protection, antarctic

Other, Habitat

Habitat

environmental protection, antarctic, emergen, liability

Other, Habitat, Pollution

Pollution

environmental protection, forest

Other, Species

Species

environmental protection, natural resources

Other

Other

environmental protection, natural resources, water resources

Other, Freshwater

Freshwater

environmental protection, nature conservation, forest

Other, Species

Species

environmental protection, nature conservation, nuclear safety

Other, Pollution

Pollution

environmental protection, nature conservation, park, nuclear safety

Other, Habitat, Pollution

Pollution

environmental protection, nature conservation, reactor safety

Other, Pollution

Pollution

environmental protection, sustainable

Other, Human_sphere

Human_sphere

exploration of the sea

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

extinguishing of natural fires

Species

Species

fauna

Species

Species

fauna, amazon, fauna&flora

Species, Habitat

Species

fauna, fauna&flora

Species

Species

fauna, park, forest

Species, Habitat

Species

fauna, protected area, coastal environment&protection, fauna&flora

Species, Habitat, Pollution

Species

fertilizer

Species

Species

fish

Species

Species

fish, agricult

Species

Species

fish, antarctic

Species, Habitat

Species

fish, aquacultur

Species

Species

fish, compensation

Species, Pollution

Species

fish, continental shelf

Species, Other

Species

fish, continental shelf, herring

Species, Other

Species

fish, danube

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, fishing vessel personnel, training

Species, Human_sphere

Species

fish, herring

Species

Species

fish, high seas

Species, Other

Species

fish, high seas, living resources

Species, Other

Species

fish, lake

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, lake, river

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, law of the sea

Species, Other

Species

fish, living resources

Species

Species

fish, marine resources, living marine resources

Species

Species

fish, niger

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, plaice

Species

Species

fish, rhine

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, rhine, lake

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, rhine, river, salmon

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, river

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, river, salmon

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, river, tornea

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, river, tornea, salmon

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, salmon

Species

Species

fish, seal

Species

Species

fish, seal, fur seal

Species

Species

fish, seal, lake

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, southern african development community

Species, Human_sphere

Species

fish, tornea, salmon

Species, Freshwater

Species

fish, training

Species, Human_sphere

Species

fish, tuna

Species

Species

fish, turtle

Species

Species

fish, waterway

Species, Freshwater

Species

foot and mouth

Species

Species

forest

Species

Species

forest, timber

Species

Species

free trade

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

genetic resources of cultured plants

Species

Species

gorillas

Species

Species

gulf of aden environment

Other

Other

hazardous

Pollution

Pollution

hazardous, compensation, liability

Pollution

Pollution

hazardous, industrial safety

Pollution, Human_sphere

Pollution

hazardous, radioactive waste

Pollution

Pollution

herring

Species

Species

high seas

Other

Other

hunting

Species

Species

hunting, forest

Species

Species

hunting, whale

Species

Species

hydraulic

Energy

Energy

hydrographic org

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

indian ocean marine affairs

Other

Other

indus basin

Freshwater

Freshwater

industrial policy

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

institute

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

institute, agricult

Human_sphere, Species

Species

institute, forest

Human_sphere, Species

Species

ivory marketing

Species

Species

joint works

Energy

Energy

lake

Freshwater

Freshwater

lake, compensation

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

lake, emergen

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

lake, environmental protection

Freshwater, Other

Freshwater

lake, meteorolog

Freshwater, Human_sphere

Freshwater

lake, natural resources

Freshwater, Other

Freshwater

lake, river

Freshwater

Freshwater

lake, salmon

Freshwater, Species

Species

lake, sustainable

Freshwater, Human_sphere

Freshwater

lake, sustainable, east african community

Freshwater, Human_sphere

Freshwater

lake, transboundary water

Freshwater

Freshwater

landscape

Habitat

Habitat

landscape, alp

Habitat

Habitat

landscape, sustainable

Habitat, Human_sphere

Habitat

law of the sea

Other

Other

liability

Pollution

Pollution

liability, biological diversity

Pollution, Species

Species

limpopo

Freshwater

Freshwater

limpopo, park

Freshwater, Habitat

Habitat

liquor traffic

Species

Species

living aquatic resources

Species

Species

living resources

Species

Species

locust

Species

Species

maas

Freshwater

Freshwater

marine mammal

Species

Species

marine resources

Species

Species

marine resources, high seas, living marine resources

Species, Other

Species

marine science

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

maritime resources

Species

Species

maritime zone

Other

Other

mediterranean shore&protection

Pollution

Pollution

mekong

Freshwater

Freshwater

mercury

Pollution

Pollution

meteorolog

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

meteorolog, environmental modification

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

monitoring of the stratosphere

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

mosel

Freshwater

Freshwater

natural heritage

Other

Other

natural resources

Other

Other

natural resources, conservation of nature

Other

Other

natural resources, east african community

Other, Human_sphere

Human_sphere

natural resources, sustainable

Other, Human_sphere

Human_sphere

natural resources, sustainable, biodiversity

Other, Human_sphere, Species

Species

nature conservation

Other

Other

nature conservation, landscape

Other, Habitat

Habitat

nature conservation, nuclear safety

Other, Pollution

Pollution

nature conservation, nuclear safety, forest

Other, Pollution, Species

Species

new varieties of plants

Species

Species

niger

Freshwater

Freshwater

niger, plant protection, plant quarantine

Freshwater, Species

Species

niger, sustainable

Freshwater, Human_sphere

Freshwater

niger, water resources

Freshwater

Freshwater

non-navigational uses of international watercourses

Freshwater

Freshwater

nordic environment

Other

Other

nuclear environmental program

Other

Other

nuclear free

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

nuclear material

Energy

Energy

nuclear material, energy

Energy

Energy

nuclear material, liability

Energy, Pollution

Pollution

nuclear material, transportation of nuclear material

Energy

Energy

nuclear material, weapon, weapon&chemical

Energy, Human_sphere

Energy

nuclear safety

Pollution

Pollution

nuclear test

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

oceanographic commission

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

oder

Freshwater

Freshwater

oil spills

Pollution

Pollution

ozone

Pollution

Pollution

park

Habitat

Habitat

park, sustainable

Habitat, Human_sphere

Habitat

permanent commission of the south pacific

Other

Other

permanent commission of the south pacific, maritime zone

Other

Other

permanent commission of the south pacific, whaling

Other, Species

Species

phylloxera

Species

Species

phytosanitary

Species

Species

phytosanitary, plant protection

Species

Species

plaice

Species

Species

plant protection

Species

Species

plant protection, plant quarantine

Species

Species

plant quarantine

Species

Species

plants quarantine

Species

Species

plata

Freshwater

Freshwater

polar bears

Species

Species

pollock

Species

Species

pollut

Freshwater

Freshwater

pollut, access to information, pollutant release

Freshwater, Human_sphere, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, against pollution

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, against pollution, dumping, pollution&marine, pollution&black

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, against pollution, north-east atlantic&pollution

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, against pollution, pollution from land-based sources

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, against pollution, pollution from land-based sources, pollution&marine, pollution&black

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, against pollution, pollution from land-based sources, pollution&mediterranean

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, against pollution, pollution&black

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, against pollution, pollution&mediterranean

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, against pollution, protection of the marine environment, pollution from land-based sources, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, against pollution, protection of the marine environment, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, antarctic, pollution from ships

Freshwater, Habitat, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, antarctic, pollution from ships, pollution&oil

Freshwater, Habitat, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, compensation, pollution&oil

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, continental shelf, protection of the marine environment, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Other, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, control of pollution, pollution from ships

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, dumping

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, dumping, pollution&air, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, dumping, pollution&air, pollution&mediterranean

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, dumping, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, dumping, pollution&marine, pollution&oil

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, dumping, radioactive waste, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, emergen, pollution from ships, pollution&mediterranean, pollution&emergen

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, emergen, pollution&baltic, pollution&oil, pollution&emergen

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, emergen, pollution&emergen

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, emergen, pollution&marine, coastal environment&protection, pollution&emergen

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, emergen, pollution&marine, pollution&black, pollution&oil, pollution&emergen

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, emergen, pollution&mediterranean, pollution&oil, pollution&emergen

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, emergen, pollution&oil, pollution&emergen

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, emergen, protection of the marine environment, pollution&marine, pollution&oil, pollution&emergen

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, energy, pollution from ships, pollution&air

Freshwater, Energy, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, environmental protection

Freshwater, Other

Freshwater

pollut, environmental protection, nature conservation, nuclear safety

Freshwater, Other, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, environmental protection, nature conservation, wastewater treatment, nuclear safety

Freshwater, Other, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, hazardous

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, hazardous, pollution&mediterranean

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, hazardous, protection of the marine environment, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, haze pollution

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, high seas, pollution&oil

Freshwater, Other, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, lake, against pollution

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, landscape, against pollution, pollution&black, biodiversity

Freshwater, Habitat, Pollution, Species

Species

pollut, liability, pollution&oil

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, mosel, against pollution

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, nature conservation, nuclear safety, pollution&air

Freshwater, Other, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, ozone, pollution&air

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, persistent organic

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, persistent organic, pollution&air

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, polluted waters

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, pollution from land-based sources, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, pollution from ships

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, pollution from ships, pollution&air

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, pollution from ships, pollution&air, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, pollution from ships, pollution&baltic

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, pollution from ships, pollution&oil

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, pollution&air

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, pollution&baltic, pollution&oil

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, pollution&marine, pollution&oil

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, pollution&oil

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, protection and development of the marine environment, pollution from land-based sources, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, protection of the marine environment, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, protection of the marine environment, pollution&marine, pollution&baltic

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, protection of the marine environment, pollution&marine, pollution&oil

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, rhine, against pollution, rhine&protection

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, rhine, rhine&protection

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, river, pollution&river

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, seabed, continental shelf, against pollution, pollution&mediterranean, pollution&oil

Freshwater, Other, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, seabed, dumping, pollution&marine

Freshwater, Other, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, seabed, liability, pollution&oil

Freshwater, Other, Pollution

Pollution

pollut, water resources, control of pollution

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

power and irrigation

Energy

Energy

power plant

Energy

Energy

power plant, niger

Energy, Freshwater

Energy

power plant, volta

Energy, Freshwater

Energy

prawns

Species

Species

protected area

Habitat

Habitat

protected area, biodiversity

Habitat, Species

Species

protected area, biological diversity

Habitat, Species

Species

protected area, protection and development of the marine environment, wildlife

Habitat, Pollution, Species

Species

protection and development of the marine environment

Pollution

Pollution

protection of plants

Species

Species

protection of the environment

Other

Other

protection of the marine environment

Pollution

Pollution

protection of the marine environment, biological diversity

Pollution, Species

Species

protection of the marine environment, dumping, radioactive waste

Pollution

Pollution

quarantine of plants

Species

Species

radioactive contamination

Pollution

Pollution

radioactive waste

Pollution

Pollution

reactor safety

Pollution

Pollution

recycling of ships

Pollution

Pollution

rhine

Freshwater

Freshwater

rhine, lake

Freshwater

Freshwater

rhine, lake, hunting

Freshwater, Species

Species

rhine, navigation of the rhine, rhine&corrosive, rhine&inflammable

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

rhine, navigation of the rhine, transport of corrosive, rhine&corrosive

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

rhine, rhine&corrosive, rhine&inflammable

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

rhine, rhine&discharge of waste

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

rhine, rhine&inflammable

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

rhine, rhine&petroleum

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

rhine, rhine&protection

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

rhine, river

Freshwater

Freshwater

rhine, river, navigation of the rhine, transport of corrosive, rhine&corrosive

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

risk capacity

Climate

Climate

river

Freshwater

Freshwater

river, common works

Freshwater, Energy

Energy

river, danube

Freshwater

Freshwater

river, danube, compensation

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

river, danube, sustainable

Freshwater, Human_sphere

Freshwater

river, emergen

Freshwater, Pollution

Pollution

river, forest

Freshwater, Species

Species

river, hydraulic

Freshwater, Energy

Energy

river, maas

Freshwater

Freshwater

river, mekong, sustainable

Freshwater, Human_sphere

Freshwater

river, natural resources

Freshwater, Other

Freshwater

river, niger

Freshwater

Freshwater

river, niger, water resources

Freshwater

Freshwater

river, plata

Freshwater

Freshwater

river, salmon

Freshwater, Species

Species

river, scheldt

Freshwater

Freshwater

river, sustainable

Freshwater, Human_sphere

Freshwater

river, timber

Freshwater, Species

Species

river, volta

Freshwater

Freshwater

river, water resources

Freshwater

Freshwater

safety and health

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

salmon

Species

Species

salvage

Pollution

Pollution

scheldt

Freshwater

Freshwater

seabed

Other

Other

seal

Species

Species

seal, antarctic

Species, Habitat

Species

seal, fur seal

Species

Species

senegal river

Freshwater

Freshwater

senegal river, senegal river&development

Freshwater, Energy

Energy

ships carrying dangerous chemicals

Pollution

Pollution

southern african development community

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

southern african development community, forest

Human_sphere, Species

Species

southern african development community, wildlife

Human_sphere, Species

Species

spitsbergen

Other

Other

sustainable

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

sustainable, bird

Human_sphere, Species

Species

sustainable, coastal environment&protection

Human_sphere, Pollution

Pollution

sustainable, forest

Human_sphere, Species

Species

sustainable, tourism

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

technological disaster

Pollution

Pollution

timber

Species

Species

tobacco

Species

Species

tourism

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

training

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

training, institute, forest

Human_sphere, Species

Species

transboundary water

Freshwater

Freshwater

transboundary water, sustainable

Freshwater, Human_sphere

Freshwater

transfrontier cooperation

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

transitional rights

Species

Species

transport of corrosive

Pollution

Pollution

trapping

Species

Species

trifinio

Habitat

Habitat

tuna

Species

Species

turtle

Species

Species

veterin

Species

Species

veterin, phytosanitary

Species

Species

vicuna

Species

Species

volta

Freshwater

Freshwater

warfare&bacteriological

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

wastewater treatment

Pollution

Pollution

water coordination

Freshwater

Freshwater

water resources

Freshwater

Freshwater

water resources, forest

Freshwater, Species

Species

water resources, sustainable

Freshwater, Human_sphere

Freshwater

waterway

Freshwater

Freshwater

weapon

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

weapon, weapon&bacteriological

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

weapon, weapon&chemical

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

wetland

Habitat

Habitat

whale

Species

Species

whaling

Species

Species

white lead in paint

Pollution

Pollution

wildlife

Species

Species

world trade organization

Human_sphere

Human_sphere

world trade organization, phytosanitary

Human_sphere, Species

Species

wrecks

Pollution

Pollution

zambezi watercourse

Freshwater

Freshwater

Assigning IEAs to lineages

Lineages consist of the legal linkages between some initial treaty, any modifying protocols or amendments, any legal emanations (e.g., that broaden its scope), and any follow-on or replacing treaties. IEAs are identified as part of a lineage based on evidence from its legal text identifying a legal relationship in which it modifies, extends, or replaces (or is modified, extended, or replaced by) another IEA. The lineage concept is conceptually similar to a parent-child relationship. The first IEA in a lineage is an Agreement (i.e., treaty, convention, accord, or other major legal instrument). Protocols or Amendments become part of a lineage if they modify or extend that initial IEA. In some cases, later Agreements (as opposed to Protocols and Amendments) may significantly modify or extend and even terminate and replace an initial IEA, so long as their texts explicitly identify the legal relationship to an earlier Agreement in that lineage. As noted in the article, the “international whaling” lineage includes the 1946 International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling but also includes the 1931 and 1936 treaties which it replaced, as they had lapsed during World War II. For a list of all MEA lineages, see https://iea.uoregon.edu/list-lineage (Voir s'il faut le migrer)

Two clarifying points deserve mention in relation to how IEADB lineages differ from IEADB subjects. First, each of the eight subject categories used in this article contain numerous lineages. For example, the Species category contains scores of legally-distinct lineages, including those related to whaling, numerous fisheries regimes, and CITES. Second, as lineages are defined by legal relationships, when efforts to regulate a given environmental problem are undertaken by different groups of states, they are assigned to different lineages. For example, international regulations to protect the Mediterranean are found in both the Mediterranean Action Plan (MedPlan) lineage and the Mediterranean Shores Protection lineage, since those are legally-separate regulatory efforts.