Paragraphs in "Convention To Combat Desertification In Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought And/Or Desertification, Particularly In Africa" coded as SUBS

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Label Provision
Art.2 Article 2
Art.2.1 1. The objective of this Convention is to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in countries experiencing serious drought and/ or desertification, particularly in Africa, through effective action at all levels, supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements, in the framework of an integrated approach which is consistent with Agenda 21, with a view to contributing to the achievement of sustainable development in affected areas.
Art.2.2 2. Achieving this objective will involve long-term integrated strategies that focus simultaneously, in affected areas, on improved productivity of land, and the rehabilitation, conservation and sustainable management of land and water resources, leading to improved living conditions, in particular at the community level.
Art.3 Article 3
Art.3.1x In order to achieve the objective of this Convention and to implement its provisions, the Parties shall be guided, inter alia, by the following:
Art.3.1x.a (a) the Parties should ensure that decisions on the design and implementation of programmes to combat desertification and/ or mitigate the effects of drought are taken with the participation of populations and local communities and that an enabling environment is created at higher levels to facilitate action at national and local levels;
Art.3.1x.b (b) the Parties should, in a spirit of international solidarity and partnership, improve cooperation and coordination at subregional, regional and international levels, and better focus financial, human, organizational and technical resources where they are needed;
Art.3.1x.c (c) the Parties should develop, in a spirit of partnership, cooperation among all levels of government, communities, non-governmental organizations and landholders to establish a better understanding of the nature and value of land and scarce water resources in affected areas and to work towards their sustainable use; and
Art.3.1x.d (d) the Parties should take into full consideration the special needs and circumstances of affected developing country Parties, particularly the least developed among them.
Sect.2 PART II
Art.4 Article 4
Art.4.1 1. The Parties shall implement their obligations under this Convention, individually or jointly, either through existing or prospective bilateral and multilateral arrangements or a combination thereof, as appropriate, emphasizing the need to coordinate efforts and develop a coherent long-term strategy at all levels.
Art.4.2 2. In pursuing the objective of this Convention, the Parties shall:
Art.4.2.a (a) adopt an integrated approach addressing the physical, biological and socio-economic aspects of the processes of desertification and drought;
Art.4.2.b (b) give due attention, within the relevant international and regional bodies, to the situation of affected developing country Parties with regard to international trade, marketing arrangements and debt with a view to establishing an enabling international economic environment conducive to the promotion of sustainable development;
Art.4.2.c (c) integrate strategies for poverty eradication into efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;
Art.4.2.d (d) promote cooperation among affected country Parties in the fields of environmental protection and the conservation of land and water resources, as they relate to desertification and drought;
Art.4.2.e (e) strengthen subregional, regional and international cooperation;
Art.4.2.f (f) cooperate within relevant intergovernmental organizations;
Art.4.2.g (g) determine institutional mechanisms, if appropriate, keeping in mind the need to avoid duplication; and
Art.4.2.h (h) promote the use of existing bilateral and multilateral financial mechanisms and arrangements that mobilize and channel substantial financial resources to affected developing country Parties in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought.
Art.4.3 3. Affected developing country Parties are eligible for assistance in the implementation of the Convention.
Art.5 Article 5
Art.5.1x In addition to their obligations pursuant to article 4, affected country Parties undertake to:
Art.5.1x.a (a) give due priority to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, and allocate adequate resources in accordance with their circumstances and capabilities;
Art.5.1x.b (b) establish strategies and priorities, within the framework of sustainable development plans and/ or policies, to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;
Art.5.1x.c (c) address the underlying causes of desertification and pay special attention to the socio-economic factors contributing to desertification processes;
Art.5.1x.d (d) promote awareness and facilitate the participation of local populations, particularly women and youth, with the support of non-governmental organizations, in efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; and
Art.5.1x.e (e) provide an enabling environment by strengthening, as appropriate, relevant existing legislation and, where they do not exist, enacting new laws and establishing long-term policies and action programmes.
Art.6 Article 6
Art.6.1x In addition to their general obligations pursuant to article 4, developed country Parties undertake to:
Art.6.1x.a (a) actively support, as agreed, individually or jointly, the efforts of affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, and the least developed countries, to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;
Art.6.1x.b (b) provide substantial financial resources and other forms of support to assist affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, effectively to develop and implement their own long-term plans and strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;
Art.6.1x.c (c) promote the mobilization of new and additional funding pursuant to article 20, paragraph 2 (b);
Art.6.1x.d (d) encourage the mobilization of funding from the private sector and other non-governmental sources; and
Art.6.1x.e (e) promote and facilitate access by affected country Parties, particularly affected developing country Parties, to appropriate technology, knowledge and know-how.
Art.7 Article 7
Art.7.1x In implementing this Convention, the Parties shall give priority to affected African country Parties, in the light of the particular situation prevailing in that region, while not neglecting affected developing country Parties in other regions.
Art.8 Article 8
Art.8.1 1. The Parties shall encourage the coordination of activities carried out under this Convention and, if they are Parties to them, under other relevant international agreements, particularly the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity, in order to derive maximum benefit from activities under each agreement while avoiding duplication of effort. The Parties shall encourage the conduct of joint programmes, particularly in the fields of research, training, systematic observation and information collection and exchange, to the extent that such activities may contribute to achieving the objectives of the agreements concerned.
Art.8.2 2. The provisions of this Convention shall not affect the rights and obligations of any Party deriving from a bilateral, regional or international agreement into which it has entered prior to the entry into force of this Convention for it.
Sect.3.1 Section 1: Action programmes
Art.13 Article 13
Art.13.1 1. Measures to support action programmes pursuant to article 9 include, inter alia:
Art.13.1.a (a) financial cooperation to provide predictability for action programmes, allowing for necessary long-term planning;
Art.13.1.b (b) elaboration and use of cooperation mechanisms which better enable support at the local level, including action through non-governmental organizations, in order to promote the replicability of successful pilot programme activities where relevant;
Art.13.1.c (c) increased flexibility in project design, funding and implementation in keeping with the experimental, iterative approach indicated for participatory action at the local community level; and
Art.13.1.d (d) as appropriate, administrative and budgetary procedures that increase the efficiency of cooperation and of support programmes.
Art.13.2 2. In providing such support to affected developing country Parties, priority shall be given to African country Parties and to least developed country Parties.
Art.15 Article 15
Art.15.1x Elements for incorporation in action programmes shall be selected and adapted to the socio-economic, geographical and climatic factors applicable to affected country Parties or regions, as well as to their level of development. Guidelines for the preparation of action programmes and their exact focus and content for particular subregions and regions are set out in the regional implementation annexes.
Sect.3.2 Section 2: Scientific and technical cooperation
Art.17 Article 17
Art.17.1 1. The Parties undertake, according to their respective capabilities, to promote technical and scientific cooperation in the fields of combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought through appropriate national, subregional, regional and international institutions. To this end, they shall support research activities that:
Art.17.1.a (a) contribute to increased knowledge of the processes leading to desertification and drought and the impact of, and distinction between, causal factors, both natural and human, with a view to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, and achieving improved productivity as well as sustainable use and management of resources;
Art.17.1.b (b) respond to well defined objectives, address the specific needs of local populations and lead to the identification and implementation of solutions that improve the living standards of people in affected areas;
Art.17.1.c (c) protect, integrate, enhance and validate traditional and local knowledge, know-how and practices, ensuring, subject to their respective national legislation and/ or policies, that the owners of that knowledge will directly benefit on an equitable basis and on mutually agreed terms from any commercial utilization of it or from any technological development derived from that knowledge;
Art.17.1.d (d) develop and strengthen national, subregional and regional research capabilities in affected developing country Parties, particularly in Africa, including the development of local skills and the strengthening of appropriate capacities, especially in countries with a weak research base, giving particular attention to multidisciplinary and participative socio-economic research;
Art.17.1.e (e) take into account, where relevant, the relationship between poverty, migration caused by environmental factors, and desertification;
Art.17.1.f (f) promote the conduct of joint research programmes between national, subregional, regional and international research organizations, in both the public and private sectors, for the development of improved, affordable and accessible technologies for sustainable development through effective participation of local populations and communities; and
Art.17.1.g (g) enhance the availability of water resources in affected areas, by means of, inter alia, cloud-seeding.
Art.17.2 2. Research priorities for particular regions and subregions, reflecting different local conditions, should be included in action programmes. The Conference of the Parties shall review research priorities periodically on the advice of the Committee on Science and Technology.