Paragraphs in "International Convention On Civil Liability For Bunker Oil Pollution Damage" coded as SUBS

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Label Provision
Pre.1 The States Parties to this Convention,
Pre.2 RECALLING article 194 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982, which provides that States shall take all measures necessary to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment,
Pre.3 RECALLING ALSO article 235 of that Convention, which provides that, with the objective of assuring prompt and adequate compensation in respect of all damage caused by pollution of the marine environment, States shall co-operate in the further development of relevant rules of international law,
Pre.4 NOTING the success of the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1992 and the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, 1992 in ensuring that compensation is available to persons who suffer damage caused by pollution resulting from the escape or discharge of oil carried in bulk at sea by ships,
Pre.5 NOTING ALSO the adoption of the International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, 1996 in order to provide adequate, prompt and effective compensation for damage caused by incidents in connection with the carriage by sea of hazardous and noxious substances,
Pre.6 RECOGNIZING the importance of establishing strict liability for all forms of oil pollution which is linked to an appropriate limitation of the level of that liability,
Pre.7 CONSIDERING that complementary measures are necessary to ensure the payment of adequate, prompt and effective compensation for damage caused by pollution resulting from the escape or discharge of bunker oil from ships,
Pre.8 DESIRING to adopt uniform international rules and procedures for determining questions of liability and providing adequate compensation in such cases,
Pre.9 HAVE AGREED as follows:
Art.3 Article 3
Art.3.1 1 Except as provided in paragraphs 3 and 4, the shipowner at the time of an incident shall be liable for pollution damage caused by any bunker oil on board or originating from the ship, provided that, if an incident consists of a series of occurrences having the same origin, the liability shall attach to the shipowner at the time of the first of such occurrences.
Art.3.2 2 Where more than one person is liable in accordance with paragraph 1, their liability shall be joint and several.
Art.3.3 3 No liability for pollution damage shall attach to the shipowner if the shipowner proves that:
Art.3.3.a (a) the damage resulted from an act of war, hostilities, civil war, insurrection or a natural phenomenon of an exceptional, inevitable and irresistible character; or
Art.3.3.b (b) the damage was wholly caused by an act or omission done with the intent to cause damage by a third party; or
Art.3.3.c (c) the damage was wholly caused by the negligence or other wrongful act of any Government or other authority responsible for the maintenance of lights or other navigational aids in the exercise of that function.
Art.3.4 4 If the shipowner proves that the pollution damage resulted wholly or partially either from an act or omission done with intent to cause damage by the person who suffered the damage or from the negligence of that person, the shipowner may be exonerated wholly or partially from liability to such person.
Art.3.5 5 No claim for compensation for pollution damage shall be made against the shipowner otherwise than in accordance with this Convention.
Art.3.6 6 Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice any right of recourse of the shipowner which exists independently of this Convention.
Art.4 Article 4
Art.4.1 1 This Convention shall not apply to pollution damage as defined in the Civil Liability Convention, whether or not compensation is payable in respect of it under that Convention.
Art.4.2 2 Except as provided in paragraph 3, the provisions of this Convention shall not apply to warships, naval auxiliary or other ships owned or operated by a State and used, for the time being, only on Government non-commercial service.
Art.4.3 3 A State Party may decide to apply this Convention to its warships or other ships described in paragraph 2, in which case it shall notify the Secretary-General thereof specifying the terms and conditions of such application.
Art.4.4 4 With respect to ships owned by a State Party and used for commercial purposes, each State shall be subject to suit in the jurisdictions set forth in article 9 and shall waive all defences based on its status as a sovereign State.
Art.5 Article 5
Art.5.1x When an incident involving two or more ships occurs and pollution damage results therefrom, the shipowners of all the ships concerned, unless exonerated under article 3, shall be jointly and severally liable for all such damage which is not reasonably separable.
Art.8 Article 8
Art.8.1x Rights to compensation under this Convention shall be extinguished unless an action is brought thereunder within three years from the date when the damage occurred. However, in no case shall an action be brought more than six years from the date of the incident which caused the damage. Where the incident consists of a series of occurrences, the six-years' period shall run from the date of the first such occurrence.
Art.10 Article 10
Art.10.1 1 Any judgement given by a Court with jurisdiction in accordance with article 9 which is enforceable in the State of origin where it is no longer subject to ordinary forms of review, shall be recognised in any State Party, except:
Art.10.1.a (a) where the judgement was obtained by fraud; or
Art.10.1.b (b) where the defendant was not given reasonable notice and a fair opportunity to present his or her case.
Art.10.2 2 A judgement recognised under paragraph 1 shall be enforceable in each State Party as soon as the formalities required in that State have been complied with. The formalities shall not permit the merits of the case to be re-opened.